DNA tests, especially the ones done to establish paternity, are impacting families in a traumatic way in Liberia, and perhaps the rest of the world. These tests are performed for many reasons. The primary and most current reason in Liberia, is for immigration purposes; especially, immigration to western countries through a family member. Other reasons include an alleged father being told many years later that a past relationship resulted in the birth of a child; men who suspect their wives or girlfriends of infidelity and need to be certain that their child/ren are or are not biologically theirs; in child support cases, and so on. The impact of a negative result from a DNA (paternity) test can be an embarrassment for the mother, redemption (from financial obligation and peace of mind) for the alleged father, and sadly, a lifetime trauma for the child(ren) involved.Before I go further, permit me to provide a basic understanding of DNA and the DNA test. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid, and is defined by Oxford Dictionaries online as “a self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.”DNA testing can be used in parental testing, which on the other hand uses genetic fingerprinting to determine whether two individuals have a biological parent–child relationship. Here, a paternity test establishes genetic proof whether a man is the biological father of an individual, and a maternity test establishes whether a woman is the biological mother of an individual.DNA testing is currently the most advanced and accurate technology to determine parentage. In a DNA parentage test, the result (called the probability of parentage) is 0% when the alleged parent is NOT BIOLOGICALLY related to the child and the probability of parentage is typically 99.99% when the alleged parent IS BIOLOGICALLY related to the child.The process seems simple and innocuous but DNA tests are capable of unleashing untold woes upon those curious enough to accept the results. Many of the companies performing paternity (DNA) testing use simple buccal swabs because DNA is found in all cells in the body. The process begins like this: the buccal swab is rubbed inside of the cheek of the parent’s/parents’ and the child’s mouth. Then they (swabs) are placed in the container provided and subsequently returned to the laboratory. This completes the sample collection phase.The testing process actually begins when all the specimens reach the laboratory. The most ubiquitous technology used (there are several others) is the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Subsequently, a formal paternity (DNA) test report which contains information on the probability of paternity is submitted. The report falls into one of two categories: Inclusion: A probability value of at least 99.99% (means child and alleged father were all tested) means that the tested man is the biological father. Exclusion: A probability value of 0% means that the tested man is not the biological father.“The probability of paternity never reaches 100% because a paternity test is calculated against a population database. A 100% probability is only possible if every man in the world is tested. A probability value of 99.99% or higher eliminates most other men from being the biological father, virtually proving the paternity relationship between the child and the tested man.”Over the years, families have been broken with children being the primary victims because mothers either lied or could not determine the biological fathers their child/ren. This has been a rampant issue in Liberia for many years, and many women prior to DNA testing have gotten away with this kind of scam.A lot of men have been tricked into providing years of financial support worth thousands of dollars to unfaithful ex-wives, girlfriends, ex-girlfriends, and so on for child(ren) that are not theirs. This is due to the fact that Liberia in the past– perhaps currently– did not have proper paternity testing mechanisms to establish parent-child biological relationships. Moreover, the primitive and inefficient methods used in the past were said to be tampered with in favor of a party in a paternity dispute; usually a lying mother.Negative results from a DNA test can be overwhelmingly shocking for individuals. It exposes a moral fraud perpetrated by a woman who knows, or has reasonable grounds to know the true biological father of her child, but falsely identifies the wrong man as the biological father for reasons known only to her. There are three primary victims in these kinds of cases: the child, the alleged father, the mother and the child.While the mother faces the embarrassment, the alleged father who may have developed a relationship with the child becomes hurt and has to live with that fact. A lot of men who go through this experience are initially discombobulated and unprepared for the intense grief that follows. On the other hand, for some men who had sought the testing themselves, a negative result is redemption from financial responsibility for the child. While they often feel a deep loss about a possible and final separation from the child, they do feel a sense of relief, especially where they are/were required to pay child support by the court.I have often wondered about the possibility of a woman not knowing the person for whom she got pregnant. Is it possible? I strongly believe that the only way this happens is when a woman who is not in a monogamous (one man) relationship, and has sex with more than one man around ovulation time. Obviously, one of the two or three men that a woman sleeps with during this time will get her pregnant. It takes only one sperm cell to fertilize a female’s egg cell. If she does have several sex partners, or has several one night stands, during that week, there is no way of her knowing which sperm got to her egg first. In this case, no amount of math or period calculators will be able to tell you who the father is; only a genetic test.The child has a right to have a relationship with his/her biological father and mother as provided for in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Hence, while it may hurt a child to know that the father she had known all your life is NOT her biological father, introducing the child to her rightful father should not be neglected. The option of whether to embrace this biological father or not should be left to the child. Although, the latter may not be fair to the biological father if he had no role to play in the paternity misunderstanding.A DNA test can be done to provide clear answers to common allegations and avoid hours of costly legal argument and delay. It also brings about the immorality of a politically driven gender war because women have always been known to assert that men are unfaithful. A negative DNA result in my opinion is a scientific way of exposing infidelity within society. According to an article I recently read on the Internet, “One child in ten is not the child of the man assumed to be their father.” This kind of information makes you think, doesn’t it?Until next week, carpe diem!Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
6M fraudThe gold dealer who defrauded a local bank of a total of $956 million was on Monday slapped with six counts of fraud.Saddiqi Rasul, the owner of SSS Minerals Trading Inc, who was accused of committing fraud at the local commercial bank made his first appearance at the Georgetown Magistrates’ Courts, where he denied the charges.Saddiqi Rasul making his way to the prisoners holding dock after the charges being readThe prosecution is contending that Rasul changed six cheques for a total of $956 million at the Guyana Bank for Trade and Industry (GBTI) between March 21 and 24, 2017. The cheques were in the sums of $290 million, $96 million, $138 million, $89 million, $298 million and $45 million.The incident became public on Thursday last and within a few hours, the suspect turned himself in to the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) headquarters in the company of his lawyer.At the court on Monday, his lawyer, Sandil Kissoon, in a bail application, accused the Bank of negligence while noting that the Bank’s Manager did not follow protocol, a prerequisite of the Bank’s policy. The Bank’s Manager, however, is still on the run.On the other hand, Prosecutor Arvin Moore, in his objection to bail, informed the Court that the suspect may tamper with evidence and witnesses. Moore also noted that Rasul has a pending case for a similar offence.Rasul, a known fraudster, is believed to have robbed and conned several gold dealers of hundreds of millions of dollars. He presently has several lawsuits hanging over his head from clients that he took money from to purchase gold, but instead, fraudulently converted it to his own use.Since his arrest, members of the Major Crime Unit of the CID swopped down on several of the suspect’s offices and houses where they conducted searches, but came up empty-handed.The fraud was pulled off at GBTI’S office at Bartica. Based on reports received, Rasul deposited the money in cheques into his bank account at GBTI.The cheques were, however, from Citizens’ Bank, but the manager of GBTI went ahead and effect payment without the cheques being cleared.Guyana Times understands that several close associates of the suspect have arrested and have been assisting Police as the probe intensifies. One of those arrested is a worker at the office at Charity, Essequibo.Rasul will make his next court appearance on April 21 at the Bartica Magistrate’s Court.
CLICK HERE if you are having trouble viewing these photos on a mobile device.It took moving some 2,200 miles away from home for two promising Midpeninsula musicians — Shannon Haley and Ryan Michaels — to finally meet.“We grew up three miles apart from each other and never met until we were both in Nashville,” Haley says. “I am from Los Altos and Ryan is from Palo Alto.”That shared geography translated to them having no shortage of topics to talk about when their paths finally did cross in …
FNB Stadium will host more Soweto derbies. FNB’s grass being trimmed for a big game. Jacques Grobbelaar is a director of FNB’smanagement company. The calabash-designed venue was ahub of activity during the World Cup.(Images: Bongani Nkosi)MEDIA CONTACTS• Orelia GrobbelaarCorporate AffairsStadium Management South Africa+27 11 247 5300Bongani NkosiThe FNB Stadium in Johannesburg, a hub of activity during the 2010 Fifa World Cup, is the most profitable facility that was built or renovated in South African for tournament matches – and its success as a venue looks set to continue.The stadium, also referred to as Soccer City, is now back to hosting big sport games like the Soweto Derby between Kaizer Chiefs and Orlando Pirates, other premier league football matches, as well as international football and rugby matches.World-famous entertainers are also billed to perform at the 94 000-capacity venue in the coming months, said Jacques Grobbelaar, director of Stadium Management South Africa which manages the FNB facility, Soweto’s Orlando and Dobsonville stadiums and Rand Stadium in southern Johannesburg.“Big stars are coming to the stadium,” said Grobbelaar at a media briefing at the stadium on 22 September.It’s been confirmed that US pop sensation Neil Diamond will perform there later this year.Although there are concerns that the 10 World Cup stadiums won’t be used to their full potential, this is not the case with the multi-purpose FNB facility, said the management group which has been given full responsibility to run the venue owned by the City of Johannesburg.Tickets snapped up for FNB matchesThe government renovated the FNB Stadium at a cost of R3.3-billion (US$460.6-million) ahead of the global football spectacle.Since hosting the momentous World Cup matches, including the opening and final, FNB went on to stage four high-attendance football and rugby matches, two of which were sold-out events.The sold-out Telkom Charity Cup, which provided all-day football activities in August, was held there, followed later in the month by a historic Tri-Nations match between South Africa’s national rugby side the Springboks and the All Blacks of New Zealand. Some 92 000 tickets were snapped up for this face-off.Bafana Bafana beat Ghana at the stadium in a well-attended match on 10 August.It was also a playground for the first round of the MTN Top 8 semifinal between Soweto giants Chiefs and Pirates, which attracted more than 50 000 spectators. The second round will also be at the stadium on 25 September.“Pirates and Chiefs will play their big matches here,” Grobbelaar said.Stadium Management South Africa has secured further agreements with Chiefs and Pirates, the biggest premier league clubs in Johannesburg, to use Rand Stadium and Orlando Stadium for their home matches.Chiefs played its home matches outside Johannesburg during the previous season, although it’s traditionally a Soweto-based team. Another Soweto premier league outfit, Moroka Swallows, plays its home matches at Dobsonville Stadium.It’s taken more than luck to strike these agreements with such big teams, Grobbelaar said. It took the company 14 months to get Chiefs to agree to play at Rand Stadium, and negotiations with Pirates dragged on for nine months.It took 18 months to bring the Tri-Nations match to FNB, according to Grobbelaar. “We were quite chuffed with finalising those agreements,” he said.“It’s not the fact that we’re lucky, all stadiums are competing [for these games].”Negotiations are under way with the Golden Lions rugby team to be moved to FNB.Stadium financially sustainableThe stadium requires about R2.5-million ($35 000) for maintenance each month – but this is no problem for management because “we’ve put proper content by attracting Chiefs and Pirates”, said Grobbelaar.Management is “doing well” in “meeting the financial demands”.“We don’t have any concerns about sustainability. We know that the stadium will be utilised,” said Grobbelaar.The FNB Stadium receives no funding from the City of Johannesburg for maintenance. “We accepted full financial responsibility of the stadium.”Grobbelaar said 40% of the management group’s profit is ploughed into community development projects around Johannesburg.
Twitter As Twitter‘s director of platform, Ryan Sarver, repeatedy pointed out during his presentation at this year’s LeWeb that Twitter and its ecosystem of third-party developers have a highly symbiotic relationship. Twitter’s APIs are still rate-limited and Twitter won’t make the full firehose of feeds available to all of its developers until early 2010. There can be no doubt, however, that Twitter has managed to create one of the most vibrant developer communities around its platform.Over the course of the year, Twitter introduced a number of new APIs, including a geolocation API that makes it easy to attach geodata to a tweet, and the controversial retweet API. With Twitter Connect, Twitter also released a competitor to Facebook Connect, although this tool hasn’t found widespread adoption yet.Facebook Just like Twitter, Facebook‘s success has increasingly become dependent on the third-party ecosystem that has grown up around the Facebook platform. According to Ethan Beard, who manages development of the Facebook Platform, over 500,00 applications have been developed on top of the Facebook platform and over 250 million users use at least one of these. The Facebook platform is not just about letting users play games like Farmville and or novelty apps like SuperPoke. Facebook Connect, for example, is becoming increasingly popular as a sign-in mechanism on third-party sites. Over 80,000 sites now utilize Facebook Connect, 60 million Facebook users use it and two-thirds of all the sites in the Comscore 100 index currently use it. WordPress.org Without any doubt, the world of blogging would look very different today if it wasn’t for Automattic’s open-source version of WordPress. The core open-source WordPress project is driven by a passionate group of developers, but a majority of development happens in the community that builds plugins for WordPress. Earlier this year, WordPress released version 2.8 of its self-hosted product – a major overhaul of its core product. It includes a new interface and new options for plugin developers, including the ability to install and search for plugins from within the admin interface. Among some of the most popular WordPress plugins are an image gallery, an SEO tool and an analytics package. iPhone We admit that our choice of the iPhone as a top web platform could be somewhat controversial. After all, Apple’s less than efficient approval system and the closed nature of the platform have even led some developers to abandon development for the iPhone altogether.There can be little doubt, however, that Apple has created one of the most successful mobile developer programs. The App Store now features over 100,000 applications and an increasing number of web services now offer versions of their products that are specifically geared towards the iPhone’s Safari browser.This year, Apple extended the SDK with a number of new and improved features when it released version 3.0 of the iPhone OS. These updates include better support for 3D gaming, augmented reality apps, easier access to maps, in-app purchases and support for push notifications. Android Android came of age in 2009. It was still a relatively unknown mobile operating system in the consumers’ conscience in 2008, but this year not only saw a large increase in developer activity, but also a strong interest in Android phones like the Motorola Droid.Thanks to the open-source nature of the project, Android made it easy for developers of augmented reality applications to test their ideas long before Apple offered the necessary APIs on its platform. While the Motorola Droid features Android 2.0 already, most other manufacturers don’t offer this update for their customers yet.Data.gov 2009 saw a number of interesting developments in the Government 2.0 movement. One of the most high-profile backers of this movement was – surprisingly – the U.S. government. With Data.gov and similar government projects that feature APIs, developers can now find a wealth of information that was previously hard to access. By providing API access to this data, the U.S. government has opened itself up to more scrutiny, as citizens can now analyze this data with unprecedented ease.New York Times APIs No other news organization offers as many APIs as the New York Times – although the Guardian’s Open Platform was also a strong candidate for this list. Over the course of this year, the New York Times opened up an API for accessing an archive of all the paper’s stories since 1981 and APIs to access information about the U.S. Congress and the New York State legislature.There can be little doubt that the newspaper industry needs to find new ways to monetize its product. For some papers, this has meant making it harder for consumers and developers to mash up their content. The New York Times, however, has decided that increased openness is a better strategy. [disclosure: RWW syndicates content to NYT]Google App Engine With App Engine, Google gives developers an easy way to develop and deploy cloud applications through a comprehensive set of services and APIs. This year, Google introduced Java as an additional language in the App Engine’s repertoire. App Engine now also supports XMPP, which has allowed a number of developers to create services that push real-time updated to IM clients or third-party applications.In addition, Google also announced a pricing structure for App Engine in February.In November, Google had to face some negative publicity around App Engine when it became known that some hackers were using the service to host a bot net. Overall, however, the service has not suffered from any major security issues so far.Azure Azure is Microsoft’s big push towards cloud computing. While it is still too early to judge the success of this platform, we think it would be wrong to underestimate Microsoft’s commitment to this space and the size of its developer ecosystem. While Amazon and RackSpace’s cloud services are clearly more popular than Microsoft’s new service, there can be little doubt that the arrival of Microsoft in this market will help to push the incumbents towards more innovation.Adobe AIR While Adobe AIR is nowhere near perfect, very few other platforms have the same cross-platform reach as AIR. It allows developers to create one application and distribute it for all the major operating systems. Thanks to its auto-updating features, AIR also makes it easy for developers to keep their install base up to date.This year, Adobe launched AIR 2, which now allows developers to access mass storage devices, drag-and-drop support for remote files and rudimentary support for P2P networking. In addition, AIR 2 also enables developers to use the multi-touch capabilities of modern screens.Those are our picks! In the comments let us know your thoughts or what we may have missed. Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Related Posts Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting 2009 has been a big year for mobile and real-time technologies, which is reflected in our selection of the top 10 Web platforms of the year. It’s the final instalment of our series of top products of 2009.As we noted in last year’s round-up, a web platform can be as simple as an API (like Twitter’s) that allow external developers to tap into a company’s data. It can also be software and services, like Amazon’s Web Services. Or it can be a fully fledged development platform, such as iPhone SDK and Adobe AIR. Whatever the case, platforms on the Web allow people to build on top of another company’s product, so we think it’s an appropriate way to close our Top Web Products series.ReadWriteWeb’s Best Products of 2009:Top 10 Mobile Web ProductsTop 10 Consumer Web AppsTop 10 Semantic Web ProductsTop 10 International Web ProductsTop 10 RSS & Syndication TechnologiesTop 10 Enterprise ProductsTop 10 Internet of Things ProductsTop 10 Real-Time TechnologiesTop 10 Startup ProductsTop 10 Web Platforms A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… frederic lardinois Tags:#2009 in Review#NYT#web#Year in Review 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market
Video production professionals are constantly learning from fellow filmmakers. Here are some video professionals who have given so much to help and educate others.Whenever a video editor needs to learn a technique, they can easily search online. When a cinematographer is looking for their next camera, they search for camera reviews. When a motion graphic designer is looking for elements, they can easily find material and tutorials.The internet has become a great source for finding out exactly what you want to know. However, we often forget that it takes a dedicated individual to put up free material for others.These video production professionals have absolutely no reason to help others, yet they do it anyway, making the industry a better place. Here are some of the best video professionals (and best people) to learn from.Philip BloomImage via Philip BloomYou can’t talk about video professionals who have cultivated an educational environment without talking about Philip Bloom. Bloom has amassed a large following on social media, and deservedly so. He is constantly interacting with filmmakers, often talking about camera gear, techniques, and more.His website is full of incredibly detailed camera and gear reviews, an array of video production tutorials, and fantastic resources that grew the DSLR filmmaking community.Despite the negative comments he seems to receive on occasion, he has continually interacted with the filmmaking community for better or worse. He also heads one of the largest fundraising teams in the UK (and world) each November during his Movember campaign.Bloom started his career as a cameraman for Sky News. He has shot several short films, documentaries, and even worked on the feature film Red Tails. He is currently shooting the second season of the CNN series The Wonder List.You can follow and learn from Philip Bloom on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Vimeo, and philipbloom.net.Andrew KramerImage via Video CopilotAndrew Kramer is the founder of Video Copilot, an online resource for motion design and visual effects. In 2005, Kramer started making After Effects tutorials that were featured on Creative COW.By teaching others After Effects, Andrew Kramer became an expert — eventually leading him to design his own software and plugins. Video Copilot plugins like Element 3D and Optical Flares have become standard tools in VFX houses.Kramer was the keynote speaker at the last Adobe AE World. Here’s a brief snippet of his presentation.Currently, Andrew Kramer can frequently be found collaborating with director J.J. Abrams. He has produced title sequences for films and shows like Star Trek and Fringe. He is also working on the much anticipated Star Wars: Episode VII – The Force Awakens.You can follow and learn from Andrew Kramer on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and videocopilot.net.Larry JordanImage via Larry JordanLarry Jordan absolutely knows his stuff. He has experience as a television producer, director, and editor. He is a member of the Directors Guild of America and Producers Guild of America. He is also an Apple-Certified trainer in digital media.The larryjordan.com website includes tons of educational information on video production. There are free tutorials on Final Cut Pro and Premiere Pro, recommended reading about video production, and a whole section dedicated to editing as a business.I believe that technology is inherently confusing for many people. So I work hard, in my writing and training, to make training less frightening and more understandable. On top of that, Larry releases a free weekly newsletter and weekly webinar. In his “spare time” he hosts and produces Digital Production BuZZ, a weekly podcast covering media production, post-production, and distribution. You can listen to the show live every Thursday night at 6pm PDT or listen the next day on iTunes or YouTube.You can follow and learn from Larry Jordan on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, larryjordan.com, and digitalproductionbuzz.comDave DugdaleImage via Dave DugdaleWhen Dave Dugdale started making videos on DSLR cameras, he created the site Learning DSLR Video to take you along his journey. His goal was to educate you about his mistakes and the things he has learned. Dave has recently switched to mirrorless cameras, and thus renamed his site Learning Video.His site includes free tutorials, camera and gear reviews, and more. Dave also offers incredibly in-depth courses for sale, which are great for learning about a specific camera.Many of the great DP’s say the same thing, they all enjoy learning and still have much to learn. For these DP’s that have been shooting movies for decades to say that, then I know I will always be learning. I try to stay humble, and this is the reason why I called this site Learning Video, because no matter how good I get, I’ll always be learning.You can follow and learn from Dave Dugdale on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Vimeo, and learningvideo.comShane HurlbutImage via Hurlbut VisualsShane Hurlbut is a Director of Photography and member of the American Society of Cinematographers. He has worked on films like Act of Valor, We Are Marshall, and Need for Speed.He started the Hurlblog as a way to share his cinematography experience. The site includes an array of articles on cinematography, lenses and gear, lighting techniques, and all stages of the production workflow.He has always gone above and beyond to share his experiences. Even breaking down camera and lens options in a movie trailer spot.Recently he has started Shane’s Inner Circle, an in-depth look at filmmaking exclusively for members. Membership grants you behind-the-scenes access to his sets, classes on advanced theory, gear tests, camera profiles and LUTs, and a monthly podcast. He and his wife Lydia not only help filmmakers, but make it a priority to help local communities and global social causes.You can follow and learn from Shane Hurlbut on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Vimeo, Instagram, and hurlbutvisuals.comMitch MartinezImage via Mitch MartinezMitch Martinez has slowly been making quite the name for himself the past few years. He has a blog that covers all sorts of industry news, tutorials, product reviews, and some great behind-the-scenes pieces.The thing that’s garnered Martinez the most attention is his free stock footage. He has given away over 120GB of free 4k RED footage, as well as some free elements. These materials are free to use in any project. It also give schools the opportunity to use the footage in their curriculum, giving material to students to actively learn from.Image via Mitch MartinezLately, Martinez has gained a lot of attention for his incredible bullet-time rig. Not only did he use 50 cameras to capture these stunning images, he shows you how he did it.You can follow and learn from Mitch Martinez on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, Vimeo, and mitchmartinez.com.Author’s NoteThe genesis of this post came from a recent personal experience. If you’ve read any of my previous articles, you may notice that I shoot video with a drone. On a recent shoot, the handle on my drone case broke. It was just a design flaw.I looked into ordering a replacement part, only to discover that the manufacturer does not warranty the case – it came for free with the drone. Thus there was no replacement part to order. It turned out that this was a widespread problem. There were many users who were stuck with broken cases and no replacement parts.Seeing the opportunity to help fellow pilots, David Barwin began 3D printing replacement parts. There was no reason for him to do anything, but he stepped in to help out fellow filmmakers. So I gratefully ordered a set.Image via David BarwinAfter that experience, I just felt good. Someone had taken the opportunity to help other filmmakers. It made me think about the many filmmakers who have helped me, and those I have learned from over the years. Many still continue to help the filmmaking community.I would like to thank all of these filmmakers for their contributions to education over the years. Let’s keep building a great community to learn from and achieve great work.Let’s try to keep the good vibes going. Who are some video professionals that have helped you over the years? Who should be added to the list? Let us know in the comments below.
The sessions court at Shivaji Nagar here on Wednesday directed the Pune police to place under “house arrest” three of the alleged “urban Maoists” arrested on Tuesday, following a Supreme Court order.Arun Ferreira, Vernon Gonsalves and Varavara Rao were produced in the Pune court, where police sought 15-day custody for further interrogation. They were arrested from their homes in Mumbai, Thane and Hyderabad, respectively. The police said they would be taken to their homes on Thursday. Accusing the three of waging war against the Government of India and training youth and students in Naxal activity, special public prosecutor Ujjwala Pawar demanded their police custody. The state alleged that the accused were working under the guise of an anti-fascist front called the All India United Front to overthrow the government.Ms. Pawar said the arrests were made based on an investigation of an FIR filed on January 8 by Tushar Damgude against the organisers of the Elgar Parishad in Pune on December 31, 2017. The state submitted a total of seven letters to the court, allegedly exchanged between members of the banned CPI(Maoist), where the names of the three accused were mentioned. None of the letters was correspondence between any of the accused. According to Ms. Pawar these letters were retrieved from seized material after the arrests of Surendra Gadling, Shoma Sen, Rona Wilson, Mahesh Raut and Sudhir Dhawale in June. She said Varavara Rao was assigned the task of amassing weapons from Nepal and Manipur. Mr. Ferreira and Mr. Gonsalves were given the task of identifying young students, recruiting them, sending them to Naxal areas, training and using them against the Indian government.One of the letters read out by Ms. Pawar said CPI (Maoist) commander Comrade Ganapathy wanted to meet Mr. Rao. The prosecution said the CPI (Maoist) had developed links with separatist groups in Jammu and Kashmir.