July 2, 2019 Posted: July 2, 2019 Updated: 5:35 PM San Diego County confirms fourth E. Coli case among child fairgoers KUSI Newsroom, KUSI Newsroom 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO (KUSI) – County health officials Tuesday confirmed a new case of E. coli in a 6-year-old boy who recently visited the San Diego County Fair and whose contraction of the bacteria is believed related to visiting the animal exhibits and not washing his hands afterward.The San Diego County Health and Human Services Agency reported that the boy attended the fair and visited its animal exhibits on June 22. He started showing symptoms of an E. coli infection four days later, but did not require hospitalization and is currently recovering.Last week, 2-year-old Jedidiah Cabezuela died after visiting the fair and contracting E. coli, at which point the fair indefinitely closed its animal exhibits.Health officials also confirmed E.coli in two other children who attended the fair — a 9-year-old boy and a 13-year-old girl.The county also received reports last week of a fifth unconfirmed but probable case of the bacteria in an 11-year-old girl.People can avoid contracting the bacteria by thoroughly washing their hands after making contact with animals at places like farms, petting zoos and fair exhibits. Young children, older adults and people with weak immune systems are at particular risk, according to health officials.The HHSA and the California Department of Food and Agriculture have collected environmental samples at the fair in recent days to confirm the bacteria’s origin. However, results of the collected samples are not expected until after the fair closes July 4.“As we continue our investigation, more cases are likely to be reported,” said Dr. Wilma Wooten, the county’s public health officer. “This is typical of any public health investigation. Since we asked doctors to be on the lookout for (E. coli), they are more likely to test patients exhibiting symptoms.”While most people who contract E. coli do not develop severe complications, roughly 5 to 10% of those who contract the bacteria can develop a potentially life-threatening kidney infection. Symptoms do not appear for three to four days after contraction and can include severe abdominal cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea and vomiting.Residents should promptly call their doctor if they believe they have contracted E. coli, Wooten said, “especially if you have diarrhea that lasts for more than three days or diarrhea that is accompanied by a fever higher than 102 F, or blood in the stool, or so much vomiting that you cannot keep liquids down and you pass very little urine.” Categories: Health, Local San Diego News FacebookTwitter
This story first appears on FOLIO: sister site, min.With rebounds in the categories of business, advertising and marketing, as well as building, engineering and construction categories leading the way, b-to-b print revenue posted gains of 2 percent in March 2011, compared to March 2010. American Business Media’s Business Information Network (BIN) shows gains in eight of the 21 markets it covers. Business, advertising and marketing was up 23.4 percent and building, engineering and construction was up 19 percent.Read the rest of the story here.
As the nation kicks off Alcohol Awareness Month, new research has come to light. It suggests that in addition to the stigma associated with alcoholism, African Americans suffer from a genetic predisposition to greater negative effects of alcohol consumption.Tamika Zapolski, assistant professor of psychology in the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), recently examined a paradox in African-American drinking. She found that despite African Americans reporting an initiation to drinking at an older age, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use in nearly all age groups, they still encountered higher levels of problems related to alcohol when compared to whites.“So much research has compared drinking habits and effects between African Americans and European Americans, but no one is truly investigating the reasons,” Zapolski said. “Understanding the reasons for these differences can ultimately improve diagnoses and intervention plans.”Zapolski posits that genetic, historical, and sociocultural factors, including cultural norms with religious beliefs and societal disapproval, make African Americans more likely to abstain from drinking and drink less than other groups. So why do Blacks encounter more negative consequences and greater risks for alcoholism or other alcohol problems?According to Zapolski, and others including Drs. Denise M. Scott and Robert E. Taylor, there exists a number of genetic variants of ADH and ALDH genes in African Americans that account for a higher rate of alcohol metabolism. This means that liquor breaks down quicker, is more potent, and has a greater effect in smaller amounts in their consumption. It also means a reduced likelihood of a family history of alcoholism and a greater likelihood of alcohol related chronic conditions such as cirrhosis.“In plain English, the data is saying that liquor is poison to some of our bodies, just like ingesting arsenic,” said Wendell Carby, a recovering alcoholic with 20 years’ sobriety. “I took my first drink as a freshman in college and was a drunk before the semester ended. It was like kryptonite to my body, but I couldn’t stop drinking even after it started making me ill.”Carby said the addiction was so swift and all-encompassing – creating damage in his nerves, stomach, and liver – that he had little time to brace himself for the financial difficulties and failed relationships that lay ahead. It was only when he began experiencing blackouts that Carby sought help.With growing concern over the prevalence of heavy drinking among African-American youth, Carby believes national campaigns should focus more attention on steering young adults away from alcohol. The rate of binge drinking (drinking five or more drinks on a single occasion for men) among African Americans ages 12 and up was 20.1 percent – compared with the national average of 22.9 percent. Similarly, African Americans aged 12 to 20 in 2013 reported past-month alcohol use at a rate of 17.8 percent, compared with the national average of 22.7 percent.“Our young people need to understand that alcohol is dangerous at any level because some of us are wired to become drunks and have to fight ‘putting the bottle down’ for the rest of our lives. The message should be the same as it was with crack in the ‘90s, ‘Just say no,’” Carby said.Alcohol intoxication can be harmful or risky for a variety of reasons: impaired brain function resulting in poor judgment, reduced reaction time, a loss of balance, coordination, motor skills, or slurred speech, as well as increased risk of certain cancers, stroke, and liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis).
Surface plasmons on the top electrode in the MIM device can increase the current from the top electrode so that it is greater than the current from the bottom electrode, generating a positive net current. Image credit: Wang and Melosh. ©2011 American Chemical Society Electron transmission in MIM devices (a) with and (b) without surface plasmon excitations. (c) The measured photocurrent in a device with surface plasmons (black line) is higher than in a device without them (red line). Image credit: Wang and Melosh. ©2011 American Chemical Society Citation: Plasmonic device converts light into electricity (2011, November 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-11-plasmonic-device-electricity.html Nanopillars significantly boost the power conversion efficiency of thin-film solar cells (PhysOrg.com) — While the most common device for converting light into electricity may be photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, a variety of other devices can perform the same light-to-electricity conversion, such as solar-thermal collectors and rectennas. In a new study, engineers have designed a new device that can convert light of infrared (IR) and visible wavelengths into direct current by using surface plasmon excitations in a simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) device. Explore further “SPs are excited by incident light when the photon and SP wave vectors match with each other,” Wang said. “For actual applications, it’s more realistic to use nano-grating patterns on one electrode to excite SPs. By simply controlling the pitches of these gratings, SPs can be excited at any specific wavelength. As a result, energy conversion efficiency could be enhanced in the optical band from infrared to visible.”The engineers calculated that these SP-enhanced MIM devices made with silver electrodes can achieve a power conversion efficiency as high as 4.3% for light with a 640-nm wavelength. Devices with gold electrodes have a maximum efficiency of 3.5% for light with a 780-nm wavelength. Both devices also have good theoretical efficiency across the entire solar spectrum – up to 2.7% for the silver-electrode device. The engineers also calculated that SPs can make silver devices almost 40 times more efficient than without the SPs for infrared light.In addition, the researchers fabricated a gold-alumina-gold device, with the top gold layer being slightly thicker than the bottom gold layer. Their experiments confirmed that light hitting the top layer excites SPs on the surface, which cause more hot electrons to be transmitted from the top to the bottom electrode. Although the resulting photocurrent that the researchers measured was smaller than the theoretical calculated value, they hope to increase the photocurrent in the future by using more effective coupling methods for SPs, optimizing metal thicknesses, and other strategies. Ultimately, the device could prove useful due to the wavelengths at which it operates.“It can work in the IR better [than other devices that convert light into DC], which can be used for energy scavenging,” Melosh said. The devices other advantages include easy fabrication and the possibility for being realized on flexible substrates.From now on, you can follow Physorg on Google+ too! Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This ability to maximize current from one electrode while minimizing it from the other is one of the biggest challenges for MIM devices. To do this, researchers can change the thicknesses of the electrodes. However, there is a tradeoff, since in a thicker electrode, more photons are absorbed but fewer electrons reach the interface due to increased scattering. Wang and Melosh’s solution is to use a prism to excite surface plamons (SPs) on the metal surface of the electrodes when under illumination. The SPs, which are small electron oscillations, can create a higher concentration of hot electrons in one electrode by efficiently coupling to light. The SP coupling efficiency depends on several factors, such as the thickness of the electrode, the type of metal used, and the wavelength of incoming light. More information: Fuming Wang and Nicholas A. Melosh. “Plasmonic Energy Collection through Hot Carrier Extraction.” Nano Letters, DOI: 10.1021/nl203196z The researchers, Fuming Wang and Nicholas A. Melosh of Stanford University, have published their study on the new device in a recent issue of Nano Letters.“The greatest significance thus far is to show an alternative method to rectennas and PV devices for IR and visible light conversion,” Melosh told PhysOrg.com. “The conversion efficiencies aren’t amazingly high compared to a PV in visible, so it’s not going to replace PVs, but it could be used for energy scavenging later on.”The new device’s MIM architecture is similar to that of a rectenna. However, whereas rectennas operate with long-wavelength light such as microwaves and radio waves, the new device operates with a broad spectrum of infrared to visible wavelengths. When the MIM device is illuminated, incoming photons are absorbed by the top and bottom metal electrodes. Upon absorption, each photon excites an electron in the metal into a higher energy state so that it becomes a “hot electron.” About half of the hot electrons travel toward the metal-insulator interface, where they may be collected by the other electrode. However, photon absorption in the upper and lower electrodes generates currents with opposite signs, so a net DC current is achieved only if the absorption is larger at one electrode than the other. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.