Feb 27, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – For the second time this week, scientists have reported the discovery of a human antibody that, at least in theory, could lead to development of a vaccine or drug effective against most types of influenza A, including the deadly H5N1 avian flu virus.A team from the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif., and the Dutch company Crucell Holland BV describe the new antibody, called CR6261, in a report in Science. They write that the antibody recognizes a stable, or nonmutating, region of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in the 1918 pandemic flu virus and a 2004 strain of the H5N1 virus.As it is described, the antibody targets the same general region of the HA protein as do the monoclonal antibodies described in the report published Feb 22: the stem or neck of the molecule, which sits on the surface of the virus and helps it bind to host cells. And like the earlier report, the new one says the antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking it from fusing with cells.”The antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion,” the Science report states. “Identification of the CR6261 epitope [the HA site the antibody targets] provides a lead for the design of antivirals and takes a significant step towards the development of a durable and cross-protective ‘universal’ vaccine against influenza A,” it concludes.The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which provided funding for both studies released this week, said in a statement yesterday, “Taken together, these studies provide a blueprint for efforts to develop new antiviral drugs as well as a potential universal flu vaccine.”The scientists, with Damian C. Ekiert of Scripps as first author, write that they isolated CR6261 from a healthy, vaccinated person by mixing a serum sample with HA from an H5 virus. In a previously reported study, they found that CR6261 neutralized several influenza A subtypes, including H1, H2, H5, H6, H8, and H9. They also found that it protected mice from H1N1 and H5N1 viruses when administered up to 5 days after infection.To determine which part of the HA molecule the antibody targets and how it neutralizes the virus, the team studied the crystal structures of the antibody in combination with HAs from the 1918 H1N1 virus and a 2004 Vietnam strain of the H5N1 virus. They found that the antibody attaches to the base of the proteins rather than to the mushroom-shaped head—the portion targeted by existing flu vaccines.In further experiments, the scientists concluded that the antibody prevents HA from initiating the process of fusing the viral membrane with the host cell membrane. “CR6261 appears to neutralize the virus by stabilizing the pre-fusion state and preventing the pH-dependent fusion of viral and cellular membranes,” the report says.The researchers also analyzed more than 5,000 HA genetic sequences in a flu database in an effort to learn why certain flu subtypes, such as H3 and H7, are not neutralized by CR6261. They concluded that the masking of a certain site on the HA molecule by glycoproteins (glycosylation) is the probable reason. From this analysis, they concluded that the antibody probably can neutralize HAs from 12 of the 16 influenza A subtypes: H1, H2, H4-H6, H8, H9, H11-H14, and H16.The presence of the CR6261 epitope in a wide range of influenza viruses “suggests a critical role in membrane fusion,” indicating the possibility of using it to develop new antiviral drugs and a broadly protective vaccine, the researchers write.Experts who were not involved in the study said the latest findings are very similar to those reported earlier this week in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology.John Treanor, MD, a vaccine researcher and professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Rochester in New York, called the idea of using the “fusion region” of HA to develop a vaccine interesting, though not entirely new. “It’s a long way to go between knowing you have an antibody that can recognize that region and making a vaccine,” he said.If the CR6261 target region were used to make a vaccine designed to induce the immune system to generate similar antibodies, immunogenicity could be a challenge, Treanor said. “Bear in mind that you don’t really make this antibody when you’re exposed [to flu viruses], or you don’t make much of it. So presumably you’d have to cook up some way of presenting the epitope in such a way as to make it immunogenic.”He said the findings certainly raise the possibility making CR6261 antibodies for use as a flu treatment. “I don’t have any doubt that we could do that. I will say that if the experience with palivizumab is any guide, you’d expect this type of passive antibody approach to be much more effective for prevention than for treatment.”Palivizumab is a human monoclonal antibody used to protect certain vulnerable children from serious infections with respiratory syncytial virus, he said.Dr. Richard Webby, a virologist, flu researcher, and associate member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, called the latest findings “great stuff.”Given that monoclonal antibodies are already used to treat certain diseases, the findings certainly point to a possibility of antibody-based therapies for flu, he said.”There are some limitations on the wider use of this approach, cost being the major one,” he said. “As production techniques improve and costs come down, it becomes a little bit more viable.”Webby added that antibody-based flu therapies have been “very, very effective” in animal models, surpassing other drugs. “So I absolutely think it’s an avenue that needs to be pursued aggressively.”As for the vaccine possibilities, he noted that a number of researchers are trying to make vaccines that induce immunity to more stable parts of influenza viruses, including sites on the HA, and have had mixed success. “There’s no doubt that if we want to produce a more cross-reactive vaccine against influenza, we have to understand more about these cross-reactive epitopes,” he said.Ekiert DC, Bhabba G, Elsliger, MA, et al. Antibody recognition of a highly conserved influenza virus epitope. Science 2009 Feb 26 (early online publication) [Abstract]See also: Feb 26 NIAID statementhttp://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2009/Pages/flu_universal.aspxFeb 23 CIDRAP News story “Researchers find antibody that fights H5N1, seasonal flu strains”
(REUTERS) – List of Test cricket hat-tricks after Sri Lanka’s Rangana Herath became the 38th bowler to achieve the milestone against Australia on the second day of the second Test at Galle yesterday.Player Team Opponent DateFred Spofforth Australia England Jan. 2, 1879Billy Bates England Australia Jan. 20, 1883Johnny Briggs England Australia Feb. 2, 1892George Lohmann England S. Africa Feb. 14, 1896Jack Hearne England Australia June 30, 1899Hugh Trumble Australia England Jan. 4, 1902Trumble Australia England March 8, 1904Jimmy Matthews# Australia S. Africa May 28, 1912Matthews# Australia S. Africa May 28, 1912Maurice Allom England N. Zealand Jan. 10, 1930Tom Goddard England S. Africa Dec. 26, 1938Peter Loader England W. Indies Jul 25, 1957Lindsay Kline Australia S. Africa Jan. 3, 1958Wes Hall W. Indies Pakistan Mar. 29, 1959Geoff Griffin S. Africa England June 24 1960Lance Gibbs W. Indies Australia Jan. 30, 1961Peter Petherick N. Zealand Pakistan Oct. 9, 1976Courtney Walsh* W. Indies Australia Nov. 20, 1988Merv Hughes* Australia W. Indies Dec. 4, 1988Damien Fleming Australia Pakistan Oct. 9, 1994Shane Warne Australia England Dec. 29, 1994Dominic Cork England W. Indies July 30, 1995Darren Gough England Australia Jan. 2, 1999Wasim Akram Pakistan Sri Lanka Mar. 6, 1999Akram Pakistan Sri Lanka Mar. 14, 1999Nuwan Zoysa Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Nov. 26, 1999Abdul Razzaq Pakistan Sri Lanka June 21, 2000Glenn McGrath Australia W. Indies Dec. 1, 2000Harbhajan Singh India Australia Mar. 11, 2001Mohammad Sami Pakistan Sri Lanka Mar. 8, 2002Jermaine Lawson* West Indies Australia May 5, 2003Alok Kapali Bangladesh Pakistan Aug. 29, 2003Andy Blignaut Zimbabwe Bangladesh Feb. 22, 2004Matthew Hoggard England W. Indies April 3, 2004James Franklin N. Zealand Bangladesh Oct. 20, 2004Irfan Pathan India Pakistan Jan. 29, 2006Ryan Sidebottom England N. Zealand Mar. 8, 2008Peter Siddle Australia England Nov. 25, 2011Stuart Broad England India July 30, 2011Sohag Gazi Bangladesh N. Zealand Oct. 13, 2013Broad England Sri Lanka June 20, 2014Rangana Herath Sri Lanka Australia Aug. 5. 2016* achieved over two innings# achieved in the same Test, once in each innings
Dalung made the clarification on Friday when President Muhammadu Buhari received the organisers of the National Planning and Implementation Committee of the first National Youth Open Water Swimming Competition tagged Youth Unity Cup 2016 led by Senator Kabir Gaya at the presidential Villa, Abuja. He said that government would pay.Dalong came under criticisms on account of the statement.He said: “Meanwhile, I conclude by trying to put into proper perspective an impression that has made national headlines to the effect that the Federal Government was not anticipating the victory of the Falcons and so could not have planned for it. This statement was attributed to myself. I want to categorically state that this is a statement taken out of context. And I cannot imagine or reconcile how.“The commitment of the federal government to the support of the Falcons is indeed overwhelming. That explains why the Vice President himself had to abandon his tight schedule to visit the players in camp, that is evidence of preparations for victory. “The federal government was prepared because it has records of the antecedents of the performance of the players. The challenges we have today which has to do with their welfare is being given attention. We are working around the clock to see how to raise fund to address the issue of their bonuses”Last Thursday, while answering questions from journalists on why the AWCON champions were being owed, Dalung said “One thing I always make clear is that the process of request for funds for sporting projects must come earlier to meet the objectives.“Don’t forget that nobody even knew the team will emerge victorious but we were confident they will emerge victorious. All the federation would have done is to plan for process of participation and entitlement and when they win it is already established in sports tradition, when you win this is what you are entitled to.” Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram By Tobi Soniyi in Abuja Minister of Sports and Youth Development, Solomon Dalong yesterday in Abuja said he was quoted out of context when he reportedly said that the federal government never anticipated the victory of the Super Falcons in the just concluded African Woman Cup of Nations and so did not prepare to pay them.
Week 16 starts on Saturday with three games: Buccaneers vs. Texans, Patriots vs. Bills and 49ers vs. Rams. Much like Thanksgiving, that provides the possibility of playing three, single-game NFL DFS contests throughout the day. We’re here with DraftKings Showdown advice and picks to help you get the weekend off to a good start, especially if you’ve missed out on the fantasy football playoffs.All three lineups go a bit off the top option at captain, but that allows us to jam in most of each game’s studs into the main portion of our lineups. Our two big fades are Breshad Perriman and Julian Edelman, but we go into why a bit more below. WEEK 16 NON-PPR RANKINGS:Quarterback | Running back | Wide receiver | Tight end | D/ST | KickerDraftKings Showdown NFL DFS Picks: Buccaneers vs. TexansCaptain (1.5x price, 1.5x points): WR Justin Watson, Buccaneers ($9,600)The big risk we’re taking in this lineup is fading Breshad Perriman, but we wanted to get both passing games in here as much as we could, so our captain is Watson. The assumption that Chris Godwin and Mike Evans would both be out with hamstring injuries is now official, and so Watson is the No. 2 WR in a pass-happy offense that should see plenty of targets.FLEX: QB Deshaun Watson, Texans ($12,400)One of the best quarterbacks in football going up against one of the league’s worst secondaries? Yes please.FLEX: WR DeAndre Hopkins, Texans ($12,200)No one on the Buccaneers will come close to covering Hopkins, and he and Watson are a chalky but much-needed stack here as they light up Tampa Bay.WEEK 16 DFS LINEUPS:FD Cash | FD GPP | DK Cash | DK GPP | Y! Cash | Y! GPPFLEX: QB Jameis Winston, Buccaneers ($11,600)He’ll throw a few interceptions, and it won’t shock anyone. But it will be the consistent deep-ball throwing that will pay off big time — and if many others have played Perriman, we’ll get a piece of it through Jameis.FLEX: WR Ishmael Hyman, Buccaneers ($3,000)With Evans, Godwin and Scotty Miller out, Hyman should be the Bucs’ No. 3 WR, which means he’ll see more than half the snaps and probably six or more targets. In an offense built on downfield passing and in a game that should feature lots of points, there are a ton of routes to value for Hyman.FLEX: RB Dare Ogunbowale, Buccaneers ($1,000)If we’re believing in Tampa Bay’s passing game playing such a huge role Saturday, we’ll use our final dollars on the Bucs’ passing-down back, in hopes that he gets solid playing time on a day no one will be running at all.SATURDAY DFS: DraftKings main slate lineup | Showdown lineupsDraftKings Saturday Showdown Advice: Patriots vs. BillsCaptain (1.5x price, 1.5x points): WR Cole Beasley, Bills ($12,000)Beasley has a couple things going for him in this game. The first is DK’s PPR scoring. The second is that Pats’ stud corner Stephon Gilmore should take John Brown out of the game on the outside. And the third is that New England should blitz Josh Allen a lot, which means quick passes to Beasley should be the order of the day.FLEX: QB Josh Allen, Bills ($10,400)Allen has too many ways of putting together a solid fantasy day to fade him in a game where we’re already fading Julian Edelman. Even in a sort of bland game against Pittsburgh, he ran for a touchdown and threw another.FLEX: QB Tom Brady, Patriots ($10,200)Brady hasn’t been good this year, but it doesn’t make sense to fade a QB from the team we’ll have two WRs from. We never really know what New England will do with their gameplan, so maybe it will decide to work the passing game early and often anyway.FLEX: RB Sony Michel, Patriots ($7,200)Michel followed up a nine-snap Week 14 with a 19-carry Week 15, so we could be looking at any number of outcomes here. He’s just a bit too cheap for a back who could end up with 19 carries again.FLEX: WR N’Keal Harry, Patriots ($5,200)We’re fading Edelman because if he plays, he’ll definitely be hindered by injury, and if he doesn’t, it sets everyone below him up for success. I’d actually make the case that Harry’s pricing should be flipped with Mohamed Sanu’s, but both can come at values (and one could return extreme value) with Edelman hurting.FLEX: WR Mohamed Sanu, Patriots ($4,400)Sanu led New England wide receivers in snaps and was targeted eight times a week ago. The fact that he caught only two is slightly concerning, but we’ll bet on the workload leading to more production this time around.WEEK 16 PPR RANKINGS: Running back | Wide receiver | Tight endDraftKings Showdown NFL DFS Lineup: 49ers vs. RamsCaptain (1.5x price, 1.5x points): RB Raheem Mostert, 49ers ($12,900)As long as Kyle Shanahan doesn’t do anything crazy, Mostert will continue leading this backfield and provide a good mixture of touch floor and big-play ceiling out of our captain spot in a game the Niners should be seeking to bounceback.FLEX: QB Jimmy Garoppolo, 49ers ($9,400)We’re going to try and lock down as much San Francisco scoring as we can here by getting involved in the running and passing game. Garoppolo doesn’t throw a ton, but when he does, he’s effective.FLEX: TE George Kittle, 49ers ($9,200)Kittle is the focal point of the San Francisco offense, and he’s worth every bit of this price. Even his floor game is a decent outcome.FLEX: RB Todd Gurley, Rams ($8,800)San Francisco’s defense doesn’t necessarily have a weakness, although it’s a bit dinged up and might give some room for the L.A. offense to work. Gurley makes the most sense as our highest-priced Ram thanks to the built-in workload floor of a starting RB.FLEX: WR Brandin Cooks, Rams ($5,000) Cooks had a bit better game in Week 15 than he’d been having, and we all know what he used to be capable of. We’ll hope on a strong finish to the season for Cooks. At the beginning of the year, you’d never expect to be able to get him at this price.FLEX: K Robbie Gould, 49ers ($4,000)If all our San Franciso offensive players can’t finish the job, Gould will with a leg that’s been locked in the past few weeks. You could also use Greg Zuerlein here, but he’s hurting at the moment.