Feb 27, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – For the second time this week, scientists have reported the discovery of a human antibody that, at least in theory, could lead to development of a vaccine or drug effective against most types of influenza A, including the deadly H5N1 avian flu virus.A team from the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif., and the Dutch company Crucell Holland BV describe the new antibody, called CR6261, in a report in Science. They write that the antibody recognizes a stable, or nonmutating, region of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in the 1918 pandemic flu virus and a 2004 strain of the H5N1 virus.As it is described, the antibody targets the same general region of the HA protein as do the monoclonal antibodies described in the report published Feb 22: the stem or neck of the molecule, which sits on the surface of the virus and helps it bind to host cells. And like the earlier report, the new one says the antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking it from fusing with cells.”The antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion,” the Science report states. “Identification of the CR6261 epitope [the HA site the antibody targets] provides a lead for the design of antivirals and takes a significant step towards the development of a durable and cross-protective ‘universal’ vaccine against influenza A,” it concludes.The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which provided funding for both studies released this week, said in a statement yesterday, “Taken together, these studies provide a blueprint for efforts to develop new antiviral drugs as well as a potential universal flu vaccine.”The scientists, with Damian C. Ekiert of Scripps as first author, write that they isolated CR6261 from a healthy, vaccinated person by mixing a serum sample with HA from an H5 virus. In a previously reported study, they found that CR6261 neutralized several influenza A subtypes, including H1, H2, H5, H6, H8, and H9. They also found that it protected mice from H1N1 and H5N1 viruses when administered up to 5 days after infection.To determine which part of the HA molecule the antibody targets and how it neutralizes the virus, the team studied the crystal structures of the antibody in combination with HAs from the 1918 H1N1 virus and a 2004 Vietnam strain of the H5N1 virus. They found that the antibody attaches to the base of the proteins rather than to the mushroom-shaped head—the portion targeted by existing flu vaccines.In further experiments, the scientists concluded that the antibody prevents HA from initiating the process of fusing the viral membrane with the host cell membrane. “CR6261 appears to neutralize the virus by stabilizing the pre-fusion state and preventing the pH-dependent fusion of viral and cellular membranes,” the report says.The researchers also analyzed more than 5,000 HA genetic sequences in a flu database in an effort to learn why certain flu subtypes, such as H3 and H7, are not neutralized by CR6261. They concluded that the masking of a certain site on the HA molecule by glycoproteins (glycosylation) is the probable reason. From this analysis, they concluded that the antibody probably can neutralize HAs from 12 of the 16 influenza A subtypes: H1, H2, H4-H6, H8, H9, H11-H14, and H16.The presence of the CR6261 epitope in a wide range of influenza viruses “suggests a critical role in membrane fusion,” indicating the possibility of using it to develop new antiviral drugs and a broadly protective vaccine, the researchers write.Experts who were not involved in the study said the latest findings are very similar to those reported earlier this week in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology.John Treanor, MD, a vaccine researcher and professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Rochester in New York, called the idea of using the “fusion region” of HA to develop a vaccine interesting, though not entirely new. “It’s a long way to go between knowing you have an antibody that can recognize that region and making a vaccine,” he said.If the CR6261 target region were used to make a vaccine designed to induce the immune system to generate similar antibodies, immunogenicity could be a challenge, Treanor said. “Bear in mind that you don’t really make this antibody when you’re exposed [to flu viruses], or you don’t make much of it. So presumably you’d have to cook up some way of presenting the epitope in such a way as to make it immunogenic.”He said the findings certainly raise the possibility making CR6261 antibodies for use as a flu treatment. “I don’t have any doubt that we could do that. I will say that if the experience with palivizumab is any guide, you’d expect this type of passive antibody approach to be much more effective for prevention than for treatment.”Palivizumab is a human monoclonal antibody used to protect certain vulnerable children from serious infections with respiratory syncytial virus, he said.Dr. Richard Webby, a virologist, flu researcher, and associate member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, called the latest findings “great stuff.”Given that monoclonal antibodies are already used to treat certain diseases, the findings certainly point to a possibility of antibody-based therapies for flu, he said.”There are some limitations on the wider use of this approach, cost being the major one,” he said. “As production techniques improve and costs come down, it becomes a little bit more viable.”Webby added that antibody-based flu therapies have been “very, very effective” in animal models, surpassing other drugs. “So I absolutely think it’s an avenue that needs to be pursued aggressively.”As for the vaccine possibilities, he noted that a number of researchers are trying to make vaccines that induce immunity to more stable parts of influenza viruses, including sites on the HA, and have had mixed success. “There’s no doubt that if we want to produce a more cross-reactive vaccine against influenza, we have to understand more about these cross-reactive epitopes,” he said.Ekiert DC, Bhabba G, Elsliger, MA, et al. Antibody recognition of a highly conserved influenza virus epitope. Science 2009 Feb 26 (early online publication) [Abstract]See also: Feb 26 NIAID statementhttp://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2009/Pages/flu_universal.aspxFeb 23 CIDRAP News story “Researchers find antibody that fights H5N1, seasonal flu strains”
Linkedin Forgot Password ? Facebook LOG INDon’t have an account? Register here Topics : Google Documenting 75 years of resilience” is a series of special reports by The Jakarta Post to celebrate Indonesia’s Independence Day on Aug. 17, 1945.Indonesia’s capital market has been thriving in the past decade, opening its doors to more and more common people thanks to technological advancements and relaxed requirements.However, the rising number of retail investors requires better investor protection, which still has room for improvement.“It’s very easy nowadays to find information on various products of the capital market compared to in the 1990s, when information was very limited and exclusive,” Hans Kwee, PT Anugerah Mega Investama director, told The Jakarta Post in late July.Read also: IDX rolls out discounts for companies looking to list on stock marketDespite the available information, financial literacy and investor protectio… Log in with your social account stock-market Indonesia-Stock-Exchange IDX #Indonesia75 OJK Financial-Services-Authority retail-investors financial-literacy
Poland’s controversial second-pillar pensions law, which took effect in 2014, is facing a new legal challenge.On 4 March, the Warsaw District Court ruled that a class action initiated by lawyer Paweł Kowalczyk for 53 claimants could go ahead.The lawsuit – against the Polish State Treasury, Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and pension fund management companies – claims the transfer of Polish sovereign bonds from pension fund (OFE) portfolios to ZUS violated members’ property rights.The transfer, in February 2014, removed PLN153.2bn (€36.7bn) in assets, equivalent to 51.2% of the previous month’s net asset value. The Court ruled that, because the claims of the individuals – all OFE members – were substantially the same, the lawsuit could proceed as a group action.Other members can now sign up to the action.Any compensation from the State Treasury, should the case succeed, would be subject to a separate lawsuit.The ruling, which is subject to appeal, has already caused disquiet, given that the government had earlier insisted its reforms were legally watertight.There are other outstanding challenges to the 2014 law.In January 2014, president Bronisław Komorowski, after signing off the law, referred sections to the Constitutional Tribunal.These included the ban on investments in sovereign bonds, the requirement for a high level of equity investment and the prohibition on pension companies advertising during the window when all members had to declare that they wanted to remain in the second pillar or default to ZUS. Subsequently, Irena Lipowicz, Poland’s Human Rights Ombudsman, referred the law to the tribunal on the grounds it violated public confidence in the State.Neither party addressed the issue of legal ownership of second-pillar assets.The tribunal has yet to set a date for the hearings.Meanwhile, the size of the second pillar has shrunk dramatically following the bond removal, the decision of the majority of former members to stop further contributions once the system became voluntary, the incremental transfer to ZUS of the assets of members with 10 or fewer years left till retirement, and the massive indifference of new labour market entrants.In January 2015, net assets, at PLN150.6bn, were down 49.6% year on year in Polish zloty terms, while the total monthly contribution plunged by 78.5% to PLN231m.
MOUNT Low continues to be a drawcard for buyers looking for large lot properties close to the coast.The northern Townsville suburb has experienced massive growth in recent years with masterplanned residential estates expanding and new infrastructure being built in nearby Burdell and Deeragun. 8 Stenhouse Crt, Mount Low“The massive 18m powered work shed is a winner while the home has great street appeal and a stunning kitchen with beautiful Smeg appliances,” she said.“The fully fenced allotment has a loads of space for kids, dogs, chooks, even a horse.” 8 Stenhouse Crt will be open on Saturday from 10.30am to 11am. For more information call Allison Gough on 0421 583 168. 8 Stenhouse Crt, Mount LowExplore Property Townsville agent Allison Gough is selling 8 Stenhouse Crt in Mount Low and said the acreage property was attracting plenty of interest.“Acreage properties are really sought after and we are seeing a lot of our buyers,” she said. “People want space and convenience. Mount Low has great access and is close to schools and shopping centres.“Bushland Beach is also only a short drive away and has a boat ramp for those who love fishing and a beachfront family hotel.”More from news01:21Buyer demand explodes in Townsville’s 2019 flood-affected suburbs12 Sep 202001:21‘Giant surge’ in new home sales lifts Townsville property market10 Sep 20208 Stenhouse Crt has four bedrooms, two bathrooms, six-car spaces and is on a 4017sq m block.The ranch-style home also has a theatre room with a projector, built-in audio system and cabinetry.The master bedroom has an ensuite bathroom and built in robes.Outside there is a 14m long patio with ceiling fans, outdoor speakers and a servery from the kitchen.Ms Gough said the property was a great option for someone wanting to shift to an acreage property.
Share Sharing is caring! Share 15 Views no discussions Tweet LocalNews Grand Fond Road made wider and safer by: – June 19, 2012 Share A section of the Grand Fond roadWidening work on the Grand Fond road is now at an advanced stage with the promise of a much more comfortable road for motorists and pedestrians alike upon the project’s completion.Work on that road project commenced in April of this year, following heavy rains last November which resulted in significant road edge failure to what used to be a very narrow stretch of road.Parliamentary Representative for the Grand Fond Constituency Hon. Ivor Stephenson, Public Works Minister Hon. Rayburn Blackmoore and a representative from Offshore Civil and Marine incorporated, the contracting local company engaged on the project paid a visit to the project site on Friday June 15, 2012.Hon. Ivor Stephenson is pleased with the extent of work done so far and is convinced that when the project is complete the road will be much safer for road users. Hon. Stephenson admits that the road has been a hindrance for several years.“People who have been going to Grand Fond would know that this is a very narrow strip of road. It would basically scare people, it was not safe and it was very possible to have accidents”.The parliamentary representative says the project is being done in three critical areas.“In the “vava” area and below the “tomiel” to” kabwit “area we had massive excavation works being done”.Section of the Grand Fond road. Public Works Minister Hon. Rayburn Blackmoore says so far over five hundred thousand dollars have been spent on this important road project. “Immediately after we had the effects of the rain last year we spent one hundred and fifty thousand dollars (E.C $150,000.00) to do initial excavation work. We are currently spending over four hundred thousand dollars (E.C $400,000.00) to do this aspect of the project”.The Minister says the next phase of the project will include the construction of storm drains and resurfacing works.“The intention in terms of the quantum of work to be done going forward is to have three hundred meters of road work and three hundred meters of concrete drains. We are going to have slipper drains and storm drains” he added. The Minister says these road improvement will be a significant improvement to what previously obtained.“The intention is to have two- way traffic throughout the length of the road”.The rehabilitation of the Grand Fond road is a further manifestation of Government’s commitment to improve the country’s road network by 2015.Government Information Service
CMC – LEFT-HANDER John Campbell on Sunday hailed the tenacity of himself and opening partner, Shai Hope, after they were forced to overcome a difficult start to post their world-record stand in the opening One-Day International of the Tri-Nations Series against Ireland.Campbell lashed 179 – his maiden ODI hundred – while Hope carved out 170, as they posted a record 365 for the first wicket and the second highest partnership ever in ODIs.“I think it was difficult to hit big shots right throughout,” Campbell said after West Indies completed an uncomplicated 196-run victory at Castle Avenue.“I think both Shai and I, we played really well. It was tough at the beginning. We really couldn’t get the ball away but both of us just said let’s hang in as long as possible to see how far we could get it because we knew that the guys coming in would have to start [again] and then that would take up a lot more balls, so we just wanted to see how far we could take it.”The 25-year-old Campbell, in only his sixth ODI, blasted 15 fours and half-dozen sixes off 137 balls while Hope stroked 22 fours and two sixes off 152 deliveries, en route to his fifth hundred in the format.Scoring proved difficult initially, however, with a mere four boundaries coming in the first 11 overs as West Indies laboured to 42 without loss after being sent in.Ironically, Campbell survived a life off the first ball of the contest when he sneaked a suicidal single to mid-off where the fielder’s throw missed at the non-striker’s end with the Jamaican short of his ground.“I was just looking to get off the mark,” Campbell recounted.“I was a little bit hesitant but thankfully [the fielder] missed and from there I was a lot more relaxed and I felt a lot better. Shai helped me along the way right throughout.”He added: “Words can’t explain the way I feel right now, it’s been a long time coming. For the past few weeks, I’ve been putting in the hard work and I guess as they say I am reaping the success.”When the partnership was finally broken in the 48th over, the pair were just seven runs shy from tying the highest-ever ODI stand set by Chris Gayle and Marlon Samuels four years ago during the World Cup in Australia.In reply, Ireland slumped to 185 all out in the 35th over with Kevin O’Brien top-scoring with 68 and Gary Wilson getting 30, the pair adding 131 for the fourth wicket to pull Ireland from 21 for three in the fifth over.Veteran seamer Kemar Roach (2-28) knocked over both openers cheaply before off-spinner Ashley Nurse (4-51) and speedster Shannon Gabriel (3-44) ran through the middle and lower order.“You couldn’t have asked for any better. I think we started the series really well. Getting wickets in the power-play is crucial and we did that – we got three in the power-play,” Campbell pointed out.“When you lose wickets in the power-play it always sets you back and for us to get three wickets in the power-play, we were always on top.”West Indies take on Bangladesh in the second match of the tournament on Tuesday
By Duro IkhazuagbeDespite scoring two goals yesterday Kelechi Iheanacho and his fellow Manchester City teammates watched with disbelief as Southampton inspired by Sadio Mane ran riot, whipping them 4-2.The 2013 FIFA Under-17 World Cup winner header in first in the 44th minute to pull a goal back for City after the Saints went up 2-0.Shane Long struck at the near post in the 25th before Mane doubled the lead from 10 yards three minutes later. It was Mane’s first goal of his hat-trick of the bitter evening for the visitors from Etihad.Mane pounced twice more to complete his hat-trick and ensure that the three points were intact. He reacted quickly as Jose Fonte’s header came off the crossbar for his second goal and converted Dusan Tadic’s pass to complete the hat-trick of the evening.By the Iheanacho found the top-right corner late on in the 78th minute match was all but over.It was the 19-year-old forward’s seventh Premier League goal in five starts.The only little blemish on a great day in the office for the Nigeria star was when he was dispossessed of the ball for the home team to go ahead and get their fourth goal.Iheanacho is making his debut in the Premier League this season after he came through from the City youth team.The victory ensures Southampton – two points adrift of sixth-place West Ham with two games remaining – can still qualify for next season’s Europa League.City remain fourth – three points behind third-placed Arsenal, who have played a game more, and four ahead of fifth-placed Manchester United, who drew against leaders Leicester at Old Trafford.Manuel Pellegrini’s team still have a comfortable cushion over their city rivals, but face a defining week, with the second leg of their Champions League semi-final against Real Madrid on Wednesday followed by a tussle with Arsenal in the league four days later.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram
The Wisconsin women’s basketball team will head into a much-needed break looking to rebound from a five-game losing streak, a slide that saw the Badgers lose a pair to ranked teams and another in double-overtime.UW’s first chance to bounce back will come Wednesday against in-state foe UW-Milwaukee. It is a young series between the two schools that are separated by just an hour drive down I-94. The Panthers are a team the Badgers have historically dominated, winning the last seven meetings and 14 of 15 meetings all-time. UW-Milwaukee got their only win against the Badgers in 1992.”We’ll get excited for this game. It’s a big game on their schedule, and they’re coming off a win [Sunday] over Northern Michigan and we’re coming off a loss. We’ll throw records away and hopefully we can handle their pressure. They’re very aggressive on-the-ball defenders and they like to attack the basket,” head coach Lisa Stone said.Wisconsin will then return home to play last year’s Mid-Continent Conference champion Western Illinois. The Westerwinds are off to a solid start on the year at 6-2 and are led by 6-foot-7 senior Zane Teilane. The preseason MCC Player of the Year is averaging a double-double so far this season with 15.6 points and 10.5 rebounds per game.The road will get no easier as the Badgers begin Big Ten action on Dec. 29, hitting the road for a matchup with the Boilermakers of Purdue. Last year the Badgers finished the season 5-11 in the Big Ten and hope to get off to a quick start in the conference schedule after starting last year 1-6.Currently ranked No. 20 in the ESPN/USA Today Coaches Poll, the Boilermakers upset the Fighting Irish of Notre Dame last Wednesday 65-54, a feat the Badgers could not accomplish earlier in the year. The Boilermakers are led by a couple of juniors in Katie Gearlds and Erin Lawless. The duo is leading the team in scoring at 14.8 and 11.3 points per game respectively. The Badgers will face three top-20 teams in the next month that may prove just how far this team has come along.After the Boilermakers, the Badgers play host to Northwestern, the only Big Ten team Wisconsin swept a year ago. They then head back on the road to face the No.12 Minnesota Golden Gophers. Last year, Wisconsin lost both games to the Gophers by a combined score of 158-102.Wisconsin then treks to Happy Valley to take on the traditionally tough Nittany Lions before returning home to the Kohl Center to face the No. 13 Michigan State Spartans.The Spartans were picked to finish second in the conference after reaching the national title game a year ago, and they feature a couple of preseason all-Big Ten selections in Lindsay Bowen and Liz Shimek.If the Badgers are to compete in the extremely competitive Big Ten conference, this young team will have to find a way to win the close games. So far on the year they are 0-3 in games decided by five points or fewer.”I really, truly believe in this team and our goals are still in sight. But we have to get it done on a more consistent basis, and that starts consistently in practice day-to-day, not just game-by-game. People evaluate your program by what they see in the games. They’re not there every day in the trenches with practice. We need to transform practice, then, into the games and continue to grow,” Stone said.
The University of Wisconsin men’s basketball team’s 2019-20 season was a rollercoaster in the truest sense of the word.While the Badgers season ended prematurely due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the team rebounded after a rough start and finished the regular season with a 21-10 record, going 14-6 in the Big Ten to capture a three-way share of their first regular-season title in five years.Whether it was junior guard Kobe King’s decision to leave the team or the resignation of UW’s strength and conditioning coach due to accusations of him using a racial slur, the beginning of the season had many sports analysts and fans alike writing off the Badgers, citing coaching and player development issues as reasons for the team’s struggles.Men’s Basketball: Could Badgers really have captured 2020 national title?In a strange, unofficial end to the 2020 Wisconsin men’s basketball season, ESPN’s Basketball Power Index christened the Badgers as Read…This criticism, while harsh, was increasingly valid as the Badgers closed out the first month of their season with a 4-4 record, showing great inconsistencies in their play marked by losses against less-talented programs such as Richmond, New Mexico State and North Carolina State.The squad finished the remainder of 2019 with a 4-1 record, and started 2020 off with a bang, defeating No. 5 Ohio State in Columbus 61–57. This momentum carried the team throughout the remainder of the season, leading them to a 12-5 record with marquee wins against nationally-ranked Maryland, Michigan State and Michigan. The Badgers won their final eight games, helping them secure the No. 1 seed in the Big Ten tournament, which was set to begin on March 11.While there is no doubt the disappointment of the season ending early is immeasurable, the 2019-20 season was one to be proud of. The team battled through many seemingly impervious obstacles, and the resiliency and determination they maintained as a group is nothing to bat an eye at.One key reason for Wisconsin’s late-season bounceback was the stellar play of junior transfer Micah Potter, who averaged 10.1 points, 6.2 rebounds and 1.0 blocks per game during his first season as an eligible member of the team. Starting off the season on the bench, the spark he provided whenever he was inserted into the Badgers’ lineup was undeniable, leading to him becoming a key member of the squad down the stretch.Another essential player during Wisconsin’s eight-game win streak to close out the season was junior guard D’Mitrik Trice, whose 28 points and four assists against Michigan helped secure the victory and propel the team to the top of the Big Ten standings.Men’s Basketball: Badgers declared NCAA National Champions in ESPN simulationThe Badgers have done it, they have pulled off one of the greatest turnarounds in college basketball history. The Big Read…While these few players were pivotal in terms of the team’s success, the Badgers’ remarkable turnaround was truly due to the ability of the squad to come together as one unit and win tightly contested games together, not as individuals. This aspect of the team is what Head Coach Greg Gard chose to hone in on during an interview with the Big Ten Network March 9.“The chemistry, camaraderie, and unification of the team has grown immensely,” Gard said. “They’ve played so unselfishly, they’ve just concerned themselves with what’s on the front of the jersey, they don’t care who gets the credit, they don’t care who gets the points as long as Wisconsin is successful.”After calls for Gard to be fired emerged among analysts and Badger fans alike in late January, Gard led the team to success despite the loss of King, culminating in a Big Ten Coach of the Year Award selection.Men’s Basketball: Senior send-off for Brevin PritzlWith the University of Wisconsin men’s basketball team’s season coming to an abrupt end due to the coronavirus, Badger fans Read…When asked how the team moved forward after the unfortunate departure of King, Gard once again stressed the importance of the Badgers’ unification.“I think they came together, they understood that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts,” Gard said. “Once they figured that out and truly believed in that, they just took off.”Gard went on to acknowledge that while no Badgers were selected to the All-Big Ten first or second teams, they were able to find their success as a committee.In the last eight games of the regular season, no single player scored the most points more than twice, as junior Nate Reuvers put up 11 points against Northwestern and 17 points against Indiana, and junior Brad Davison dropped 30 points against Nebraska and 20 points against Minnesota.“They’ve just understood that if we bond together, we stick together, we stay true to who we are, and we continue to work, great things can happen,” Gard said. “This is the ultimate definition of what a team can accomplish when they work together.”The Badgers were primed to make a deep postseason run, and while the squad no longer has a chance to capture the Big Ten championship and make a run towards the Final Four, the accomplishments and strides they took throughout the regular season offers great hope for the future of Wisconsin’s basketball program.