Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email firstname.lastname@example.org.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedSCHOOL BUS ROUTES for Wilmington Public Schools (2019-2020)In “Education”Wilmington School Lunch Menus (Week of August 26, 2019)In “Education”Wilmington School Lunch Menus (Week of September 2, 2019)In “Education” Wilmington High School Wilmington Middle School Woburn Street Elementary School & North Intermediate School WILMINGTON, MA — Wilmington Public Schools recently released the school bus routes for the 2018-2019 school year for the Woburn Street/North, Shawsheen/West, Middle School & High School: Shawsheen Elementary School & West Intermediate School
The Indian government has approved plans to sell part of its stake in state-run banks and raise about $25.76 billion, according to a statement issued on Wednesday. State Bank Of India, largest public-sector bank in IndiaReutersThe decision was taken at a meeting of the Union Cabinet. The sale is expected to happen in a phased manner, till 2019. The 27 state-run banks of Asia’s third-largest economy currently have state ownership ranging from 56 percent to 84 percent. These banks account account for 70 percent of the total outstanding loans of about $1 trillion. The government would continue to hold 52 percent stake in the banks after the stake sale.The banks also need an estimated $60 billion to build a buffer against bad loans in line with new global regulations.Minister of State for Finance Jayant Sinha had told the parliament in November that a reduction in government stake in the banks would reduce capital injections substantially, as mandated by the new norms.Over the last decade, the government funded these banks by about $13 billion. However the need to lower the budget deficit could limit the options available to the government on continued funding for the banks.Over the next four years, the government would have to pump in ₹788.95 billion ($12.70 billion,) to maintain its 52 percent stake. Dividend outflow for the same period would mop up almost ₹345 billion ($5.56 billion.)While the bigger state-run banks could see positive reaction to its share sales, smaller ones could languish. Most state-run banks are burdened by high levels of bad debt and corporate governance issues.A panel appointed by the RBI had recommended the government to reduce its stake in state lenders to less than 50 percent.
(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from the University of Illinois has found that recreational fishing that employs the use of lures to catch largemouth bass, results in a reduction in male bass that make the best fathers. In their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group writes that their research shows that male bass that tend to their young are more likely to be caught by hooks hidden in fish lures. Depiction of largemouth bass in its habitat. Micropterus salmoides. Credit: Timothy Knepp/Wikipedia. © 2012 Phys.org With largemouth bass, after the female lays her eggs, it’s up to the male to protect them. They do so by fanning the eggs and driving away threats. Those that do a better job of it, tend to have more offspring survive. But, this new researcher suggests, the same aggressive behavior that some bass exhibit when protecting their young, can cause them to be more vulnerable to being caught by sport fishermen.Because of the popularity of bass fishing, the fish are bred in reservoirs and are then released into the wild in places where fishermen go to catch them; otherwise all the fish would be caught and there would be none left to fish. Over time those that manage fish populations have come to realize that some bass are more likely to strike at a lure and thus be caught then others. Some fishermen prefer such fish, while others prefer those that are more difficult to catch. To serve the needs of both, both types of fish have been bred and are then released into different areas to account for the different tastes.Suspecting that the two groups of fish might have other differences as well, the research team set up underwater cameras to watch the males as they cared for the eggs of their young in hatcheries. In so doing, they discovered that those fish that took their job very seriously, appeared to consider a lure a threat, and thus were more likely to attack it, resulting in them being caught. Conversely, those fish that were more lackadaisical in their responsibilities tended to be less likely to be caught.The end result, the researchers say, is that the best fathers wind up being the ones that get caught, thus their young never hatch and grow up to pass on their good father genes, which means that recreational fishing actually impacts the evolution of bass populations. Explore further Citation: Researchers find fishing tends to lessen population of best male bass (2012, December 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-12-fishing-lessen-population-male-bass.html Largemouth bass vulnerability to being caught by anglers a heritable trait Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences More information: Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential, PNAS, Published online before print December 3, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1212536109AbstractFisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait “vulnerability to angling” positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org) —A pair of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Australia, believe they may have found a way to solve the discrepancy problem that exists between molecular biologists and paleontologists who disagree on the likely first appearance of placental mammals. They describe their new dating approach, which they call a “morphological clock” in their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B Citation: Researchers suggest rate of evolution change can explain discrepancy between molecular clocks and fossil evidence (2014, August 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-08-evolution-discrepancy-molecular-clocks-fossil.html More information: Ancient dates or accelerated rates? Morphological clocks and the antiquity of placental mammals, Proc. R. Soc. B 22 October 2014 vol. 281 no. 1793 20141278. rspb.royalsocietypublishing.or … nt/281/1793/20141278AbstractAnalyses of a comprehensive morphological character matrix of mammals using ‘relaxed’ clock models (which simultaneously estimate topology, divergence dates and evolutionary rates), either alone or in combination with an 8.5 kb nuclear sequence dataset, retrieve implausibly ancient, Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous estimates for the initial diversification of Placentalia (crown-group Eutheria). These dates are much older than all recent molecular and palaeontological estimates. They are recovered using two very different clock models, and regardless of whether the tree topology is freely estimated or constrained using scaffolds to match the current consensus placental phylogeny. This raises the possibility that divergence dates have been overestimated in previous analyses that have applied such clock models to morphological and total evidence datasets. Enforcing additional age constraints on selected internal divergences results in only a slight reduction of the age of Placentalia. Constraining Placentalia to less than 93.8 Ma, congruent with recent molecular estimates, does not require major changes in morphological or molecular evolutionary rates. Even constraining Placentalia to less than 66 Ma to match the ‘explosive’ palaeontological model results in only a 10- to 20-fold increase in maximum evolutionary rate for morphology, and fivefold for molecules. The large discrepancies between clock- and fossil-based estimates for divergence dates might therefore be attributable to relatively small changes in evolutionary rates through time, although other explanations (such as overly simplistic models of morphological evolution) need to be investigated. Conversely, dates inferred using relaxed clock models (especially with discrete morphological data and MRBAYES) should be treated cautiously, as relatively minor deviations in rate patterns can generate large effects on estimated divergence dates. Explore further Research team claims fossil-only study of placental mammalian evolution time frame is wrong To date the first appearance of a something in the biological record, modern scientists have two main tools—dating fossils and using what’s known as a molecular clock, where DNA techniques are used to follow the evolution of species divergence. Problems come in when the two methods offer different results. That’s been the case with researchers attempting to date the first arrival of placental mammals. The earliest fossils suggest they showed up on the scene approximately 66 million years ago. The molecular clock approach, however, suggests it happened long before that, approximately 90 to 100 million years ago. In this new effort, the research pair suggest a way to resolve the difference (without claiming that the difference is because older fossils have just not been found.) They call their approach a morphological clock, which is based on the progression of anatomical differences that arise in a species, rather than DNA tracing. Using it, they suggest it’s possible that placental mammals first arrived as early as 160 million years ago. But they have a caveat, they suggest, that the speed at which evolutionary changes took place could have changed, which if taken into account, would bring the time frame closer to 66 million years ago. As for why a change in speed of evolution might have taken place, the team notes that it might have occurred soon after the dinosaurs went extinct—which would have opened up a whole new niche that could have been filled very quickly by the advent of placental mammals.If this new approach is to be taken seriously, it would cast doubts on the accuracy of molecular clocks in general—they’re based on the assumption that evolution occurs at a fixed rate. It could also help explain the “sudden” appearance of a wide variety of species 540 million years ago—the Cambrian explosion—which many believe led to the appearance of all modern animal groups. © 2014 Phys.org A four-day-old mouse. Credit: Wikipedia/CC BY-SA 3.0 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.